THE ART OF THE TAPER, 1883
William Wilson, in "The Swimming Instructor", 1883, recommended that the following important points be observed in preparing for competition:- "During the last three or four days before the date of the race attention should be paid to prevent any difference in weight, while muscles and all functions must be kept in good play, lungs clear, eyes steady, skin polished and bright, tongue clean, whilst all liability to chill or become cold must be strenuously guarded against. There should be no exercise on the day of the race, and if one feels at all inclined for ease the whim should be gratified. He should be kept warm and comfortable, and be allowed to lounge about or even lie in bed until the time for getting ready for the coming effort."
"In training for a swimming match there is this difference in the preparation from that of running or walking - that the man must not be got ready too 'fine'. If the distance is above five hundred yards, there must be some fat and red blood left to combat the cold water."